War Memorials in South Norfolk

Following on from our recent call for help regarding War Memorials in the county, Sally one of our county librarians has sent this piece to us.

Almost every parish in Norfolk has some form of monument as a memorial to the fallen of the parish; men who lost their lives in World War 1.  These monuments are the focus for annual commemorations on November 11th each year and are often tended by local groups. Most parish councils took responsibility for erecting a memorial to ‘The Fallen’ after the war although it may have been paid for by public subscription and erected on land donated by wealthy individual landowners. On occasion the landowner, squire or lord of the parish would pay for a memorial, such as the impressive column at Elveden near Thetford.

Elvedon Memorial (image from Wikimapia)

As the centenary of the outbreak of WW1 approached in 2014, many parishes looked again at these memorials. Some, such as at Diss, found that there were names missing from the memorials of soldiers who should have been honoured. The Diss memorial was inscribed with the missing names and re-dedicated in 2014.

Diss War Memorial (image from Diss Parish Chirch http://www.dissparishchurch.org/WarMemorial.html)

In Harleston Ruth Walton, a local historian, decided to research and publish a book about the lives of the men commemorated on the town memorial. This research uncovered sad stories behind the carved names; the Borrett family from Wortwell lost three sons within seven months in 1917; Frederick aged 29 died in Mesopotomia in April 1917, John aged 31 died in France in July and Stanley aged just 22 who was also killed in France in  October. Another son, Thomas, was serving as a stoker in the Royal Navy and had been interned in Belgium in 1914 after the fall of Antwerp. He came through the war safely and returned to Norfolk. As seems to have happened quite often these brothers are commemorated on both the Harleston and Wortwell memorial.

Ruth Walton’s book We Will Remember; the lives of the Harleston men who fought and died in two world wars is available in Norfolk libraries.

The Waveney Valley Community Archaeology group dedicated time to researching ‘hidden’ memorials in the Waveney Valley: those “more discrete and personal memorials to losses suffered by our communities.” These can take many forms from the rededication of a hall or other local amenity, to the keeping of a Roll of Honour or ‘Flanders Cross’ within the parish church. The group’s website www.waveneyarchaeology.org states that hidden memorials may ”also include street names and street signs, parks, hospitals and bowling greens as well as smaller items of ephemera. Many of these less formal memorials now lie overlooked and unrecorded, with their significance forgotten to the wider population and their loss remains a very real threat.”

If you have completed research in to any aspect of WW1 in your community please do consider sharing the information with us so we can share your research with our readers.

A tour of some of Australia’s War Memorials

We’ve just been sent this lovely piece from one of our blog readers who took a trip to Australia earlier in the year.

The tour began in Melbourne, Victoria, with a visit to the Shrine of Remembrance set among the lush and beautiful Royal Botanic Gardens. 114,000 Victorians enlisted in the First World War. Of the 89,000 of them who served abroad 19,000 were killed. They were buried in distant graves far from home at a time when most Australians did not travel abroad. The Shrine provided a place where Victorians could grieve as individuals, as families or as a community. It also served to honour the courage of the men, women and children who remained at home.

The shrine was built by public subscription at a time of considerable national hardship in Australia as in Britain. The inspiration for the external outline came from one of the seven wonders of the ancient world – the mausoleum at Halicarnassus to Mausolus, King of Caria in South West Asia Minor. It was opened by the Duke of Gloucester in November 1934 in front of a crowd of  300,000.

The Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne

The shrine is equally spectacular inside, but achieves a profound sense of calm conducive to remembrance of the ANZACs who gave their lives in two world wars and in subsequent conflicts.

The great vault of the Shrine of Remembrance open to the sky

Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was formed in December 1914 and was heavily engaged in the disastrous British-led campaign in the Dardanelles. Otherwise known as the Gallipoli campaign, the very word has a deep resonance for Australians. In keeping with the composition of the ANZAC, the flags of Australia and New Zealand hand vertically facing each other inside the shrine.

The flags of Australia and New Zealand within the Shrine

James Lawson was born in Halifax, Yorkshire and went to Australia in 1905. On 20 August 1914, just weeks after the outbreak of war, he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) and was commissioned second lieutenant in the 4th Light Horse Regiment. He served first on Gallipoli and later in Sinai and Palestine. In May 1917 he was promoted major and placed in command of A Squadron. On 31 October 1917 Lawson’s squadron, and another from the 12th Light Horse Regiment, led the charge at Beersheba. Lawson’s regiment later took part in the capture of Damascus led by General Allenby in September 1918. He returned home in January 1919 and lived out his life in Wimmera, Victoria, a modest but much admired and respected citizen.

major James Lawson, 4th Australian Light Horse Regiment
in the Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne, Vic.

Sergeant James Offord of Bendigo, Victoria, enlisted in the 4th Light Horse Regiment and served in the Sinai-Palestine campaign, and was awarded the Military Medal. He made a souvenir of a Turkish flag after the battle of Beersheba, 31 October 1917.

Turkish Flag from Beersheba in the Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne, Vic.

Also in the Shrine is one of the only two landing craft to survive from Gallipoli: the other is at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.

A Gallipoli landing craft

 

Troops of the Australian 4th Battalion landing at Anzac Cove, 25 April 1915
Public Domain image : Australian War Memorial, ID Number: P00035.001

Northwards into upstate Victoria and  seemingly every city, town and village has its war memorial, always lovingly cared for and usually surrounded with trees and flowers. In Bendigo, the domed war memorial lies a few hundred metres from the cenotaph. Bendigo’s wealth came from the Victorian gold rush of the 1850’s and the town centre is a filled with elegant buildings from that time and later.

Bendigo, Victoria: The War Memorial and Cenotaph

At the end of World War One, the small rural community of Tooborac raised £600 by public subscription to remember the seventeen soldiers who did not return. The memorial consists of a granite column with a white marble figure of a soldier standing to attention.

Three views of the War Memorial at Tooborac, Victoria

On the Murray River, which forms the border between Victoria and the state of New South Wales, lies the town of Echuca. It was once a thriving trans-shipment point for the steam-driven paddle steamers bringing cargo hundreds of miles up the river from the sea near Adelaide. It is now a flourishing tourist centre and a welcoming place to visitors from England. Here, the memorials to the men who fell in the South African wars, as well as the two world wars and later conflicts, are grouped together outside the quiet  of the public library against a backdrop of the gum trees along the river. The memorial remembers all those from the Echuca District who went to fight, not only those who did not return.

The War Memorials at Echuca, Victoria

The Australian War Memorial in Canberra is the national memorial. It stands elevated on the slopes of Mount Ainslie and lies in ceremonial alignment with the old and new Commonwealth Parliament Buildings across Lake Burley Griffin.

The Australian War Memorial, Canberra, viewed looking up Anzac Parade, and the view from the Memorial to the Parliament buildings.

On a sunny Sunday morning walking up Anzac Parade the temperature is 30°C, the air is dry, clear and fragrant with the smell of eucalyptus, Holy Communion is being taken nearby in the Anglican church of St. John the Baptist, and all is peaceful and quiet. Anzac Parade is lined with memorials that capture the eye and the camera.

The Mounted Memorial shows Australian and New Zealand Army horse riders in action. The horse of the New Zealander on the right has been injured or shot, and the rider is falling to the ground; the rider on the left is supporting his mate. The original memorial stood in Port Said, Egypt, but was badly damaged in 1956 during the Suez Crisis. This is a replica unveiled in 1968.

The original memorial bore this inscription: ‘Erected by their comrades and the governments of Australia and New Zealand in memory of the members of the Australian Light Horse, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles, The Imperial Camel Corps and the Australian Flying Corps who lost their lives in Egypt, Palestine and Syria 1916 – 1919’

The Mounted Memorial on Anzac Parade, Canberra

The Australian War Memorial is a place of remembrance, a museum and an archive. It contains the Tomb of the Australian Unknown Soldier. The heart of the commemorative area is the Hall of Memory, a tall domed chapel with a small floor plan in the form of an octagon. In front of the Hall of Memory is a narrow courtyard with a memorial pool surrounding an eternal flame and flanked by sidewalks and shrubbery, including plantings of rosemary for remembrance.

The Hall of Memory, Australian War Memorial, Canberra

Above the courtyard to either side are long cloisters containing the Roll of Honour, a series of bronze plaques naming the 102,185 Australian servicemen and women killed in conflict or on peacekeeping operations. The plaques include names dating back to the British Sudanese Expedition, the Second Boer War, and the Boxer Rebellion. The entire long wall of the west gallery is covered with the names of the 66,000 who died in World War I. The east gallery is covered with the names of those who died in World War II and conflicts since.

A section of the West Gallery with the names, but not the ranks of the 66,000 Australians who were killed during World War One. Australian War Memorial, Canberra

Plans to honour an unknown Australian soldier were first put forward in the 1920s, but it was not until 1993 that one was at last brought home. To mark the 75th anniversary of the end of the First World War, the body of an unknown Australian soldier was recovered from Adelaide Cemetery near Villers-Bretonneaux in France and transported to Australia. After lying in state in King’s Hall in Old Parliament House, the Unknown Australian Soldier was interred in the Hall of Memory on 11 November 1993. He was buried in a Tasmanian blackwood coffin, on which were placed a bayonet and a sprig of wattle. Soil from the Pozières battlefield in France was scattered in his tomb.

Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier
Australian War Memorial (www.awm.gov.au/visit/hall-of-memory/tomb/)

Among the many displays in the museum are the paintings of George Lambert. Lambert served as an official war artist in Sinai-Palestine and was a member of the Australian Historical Mission that went back to Gallipoli in 1919. During this period he recorded, in hundreds of small oil and watercolour studies, the landscapes in which Australians fought and the details of their everyday lives.

A Sergeant of the Australian Light Horse by George Lambert. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

He later undertook larger commissions, one of the most famous of which is ‘The Charge of the Australian Light Horse at Beersheba’, which captures some of the drama and chaos of the 4th Light Horse Brigade’s thunderous charge on the Turkish trenches south of Beersheba on the late afternoon of 31 October 1917.

Detail from The Charge of the Australian Light Horse at Beersheba 1917 by George Lambert
Australian War Memorial, Canberra

Onward to Sydney, by train through rural Victoria and New South Wales. On an overcast and humid Australia Day (26 January – the date on which the First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove in 1788), the ANZAC Memorial in Hyde Park did not look at its best. The reflecting pool struggled in its greyness to reflect the pink marble cladding of the Art Deco memorial.

The ANZAC Memorial, Sydney

…and with better lighting conditions and a far more competent photographer:

ANZAC Memorial, Sydney

The interior is largely faced in white marble, and features a domed ceiling adorned with 120,000 gold stars – one for each of New South Wales’ military volunteers during World War I.

However, the centrepiece of the interior is the monumental bronze sculpture of a deceased youth, representing a soldier, held aloft by a caryatid comprising three female figures, representing his mother, sister and wife. There are two allusions which strike one when first seeing the figure: the Spartan mother’s farewell injunction to her son to uphold Spartan values of bravery as he went to war, “[Return] either with it [your shield] or on it”. A hoplite could not escape the field of battle unless he tossed away the heavy and cumbersome shield. Therefore losing one’s shield implied desertion and cowardice. The youth in the ANZAC Memorial returned dead, carried on his shield, and hence, brave. His arms are extended along a sword in the manner of Christ crucified, and one is reminded of the three women who tended Christ after his decent from the Cross.

‘Sacrifice’ by George Rayner Hoff, the centrepiece of the ANZAC Memorial, Sydney
With thanks to: sydneyemeraldcity.blogspot.co.uk/ – my photograph is terrible!

‘This is the central motif of the Memorial’s design. … Thousands of women, although not directly engaged in war activities, lost all that was dear them – sons they had borne and reared, husbands, fathers of their children, friends, lovers. … There was no acknowledgement of them in casualty lists of wounded, maimed and killed. They endured all men’s sacrifice quietly. In this spirit I have shown them, carrying their load, the sacrifice of their menfolk. … Sacrifice is a shift away from the rhetoric of honour, glory and manly deeds manifested in earlier memorials – Hoff had seen too much of war to glorify it. From the AWM website.

Four white marble panels inside the memorial appear almost as regimental standards bearing Australian battle honours for the First World War, including the largely forgotten (in Britain) battle of the Cocos Islands, the Royal Australian Navy’s first victory at sea on 9 November 1914.

A visit to some of the war memorials of Australia (and New Zealand) remind us that 1914-1918 was indeed a World war.

Detail of the war memorial at Oamaru, South Island, New Zealand, visited in 2004
nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/oamaru-war-memorial

Unless a URL is quoted, the photographs are those of the writer and may be freely used for non-commercial purposes, with an acknowledgement to the Norfolk in World War One blog: https://norfolkinworldwar1.org/ (the images have been reduced in size/quality for publication on the Internet and higher resolution ones can be shared on request.

Asking for your help, again!

Behind the scenes here in the Norfolkinworldwar1 team we’ve been working very hard on the logistics for a countywide commemoration project to mark the 100th anniversary of the Armistice in 2018 – in fact some of you may have heard us talking about our project at the Norfolk Record Office conference back at the end of February!

The final details are just being worked out and then we’ll share all of our plans with you but for now Sarah needs your help…

Over the past six months I have been trying to assertain the number of men (and women) from Norfolk whose deaths are commemorated on war memorials, plaques and rolls of honor around the county. 

I now am missing the data from just 14 villages and I would be most grateful if readers of the blog could help me fill in these final gaps.

The missing details come from: Arminghall, Bittering Parva, Carleton St Peter, Gately, Hassingham, Holverston, South Acre, Sparham, Stowbridge, Stratton Strawless, Themelthorpe, Thwaite St Mary and West Raynham.

If anyone is near these locations and can share the numbers of people commemorated in each location it would be wonderful. If there is no memorial in some of these places it would be great to know as well please.

Please feel free to share this call for help with anyone who might be able to help – the image below should print off easily to be shared – and as ever thanks in advance for your help.

Images from the archives.

Dozens of similar images of newly erected war memorials from towns and villages all over Norfolk will be added to Picture Norfolk over the next year – although we don’t have an image like this for every place.  They were originally added to the Norwich Public Library Photographic Survey collection in the 1920s and today are held at the Norfolk Heritage Centre.

Images from the archives

Dozens of similar images of newly erected war memorials from towns and villages all over Norfolk will be added to Picture Norfolk over the next year – although we don’t have an image like this for every place.  They were originally added to the Norwich Public Library Photographic Survey collection in the 1920s and today are held at the Norfolk Heritage Centre.

Sharing research

Recently some of the team from the Norfolkinww1 team went to the day conference organised by the wonderful Norfolk Record Office.

We had a great time talking to other local history researchers and sharing details of our forthcoming project (details here very soon). One of the best things was talking to people who’ve already completed research into their town/village WW1 history and hopefully over the coming months we’ll be able to share their stories here too.

First up we have been given permission by John Ling from Bergh Apton to share the start of their work into all of the men listed on their war memorial.

This is just an excerpt from a wonderful document – and if you email John on John.Ling@btinternet.com he can send you the full document, or you can see the document for yourself in the Sanctuary of the village church.

Burghapton [Bergh Apton], St. Peter and St. Paul’s Church.
Author: Ladbrooke, Robert. From Picture Norfolk

THE MEMORIAL: ITS DESIGN, RESTORATION & ADDITIONS

War memorials erected after the First World War could be a contentious issue. The Eastern Daily Press (EDP) of the time carries many reports of disagreements as to style, form and even decisions taken to do nothing at all. Controversy took many forms. The EDP of 15th March 1920 reported, for example, that the proposal to erect a memorial at Brisley met opposition because it might arouse resentment outside the parish!

There is no record of opposition in Bergh Apton. The request for a Faculty (church planning permission) to erect the memorial was submitted by the Rec-tor and Churchwardens on 4th December 1919 following unanimous agreement by the Vestry on a design submitted by Southampton architect W G Houseman.

There is a hint of controversy, however, after the Second World War in the fact that there was a twenty year delay in adding the names of five Bergh Apton men killed in that conflict. The matter was not settled until 1965 when the Church-wardens’ Minute Book recorded the success of the late Miss Betty Denny-Cooke, clearly in the face of some procrastination by others, in her insistence that the work be done.

Norfolk Record Office has an original drawing of the war memorial proposed in 1919. If one compares the drawing with the memorial itself one sees that the real thing differs little from Houseman’s proposal. It has been restored twice in its lifetime. The first occasion coincided with the addition of the World War Two names 1965. The second was in 2007 when major restoration work was carried out with financial support from English Heritage via the War Memorials Trust together with a fundraising campaign in the village and some very generous do-nations from well-wishers far and wide.

The 2007 work was carried out by stonemason Matthew Beesley of Fairhaven of Anglesey Abbey. He repaired cracks and stabilized metal corrosion, cleaned the stone, re-carved the dedication and the names of the existing men and then protected the memorial against erosion and fungal attack. At the same time, with the approval of the Parish Council and the PCC, the names of sixteen men were added.

The completion of these works was marked on 25th May 2007 by a re-dedication service led by the Bishop of Thetford. It was attended by the Deputy Lord Lieu-tenant for Norfolk, members of the men’s families, Standard Bearers and representatives of many Regiments and Services with whom they had served and by residents of Bergh Apton. The congregation numbered in excess of two hundred people.

Since then the names of more men with appropriate village bone fides (principally birth, baptism, education, livelihood or residence greater than one year) have been added.

BERGH APTON’S WAR DEAD

Only five months after the Great War ended Bergh Apton’s Vestry considered ideas for a village war memorial. A design for a simple war memorial was agreed on 4th December that year and received Diocesan planning approval on 21st February 1920. When it was dedicated on 28th May 1920 it carried the names of twenty men who died in that war. In 1965 five more were added for the Second World War.

Research begun in 1999 revealed that other men whose lives had begun in or had been shaped by the village of Bergh Apton had died in war but their deaths were not recorded on the memorial. A key reason lay in the peripatetic nature of life on the land; by the time that the call went out in 1919 for names to be put for-ward for the memorial many of the agricultural labouring families who had lost sons whilst living in Bergh Apton had moved away to work on farms in other villages.

In 2007 the Parish Council and PCC agreed that Bergh Apton birth, baptism, education, or employment would entitle a man killed in either World War to be added to the memorial. Residential qualification was added in 2009. On this basis the names of thirteen more men from the First World War and seven from the Second were added between 2007 and 2009 to make a total of forty six men. Two more candidates are being considered as this is written.

We are grateful to the many people who have given us help, advice and materials that have enabled us to set down these accounts of lives lost in war. The most important source was the families of the men themselves. Invaluable help came from the Royal Norfolk Regimental Museum and the Norfolk Records Office; from the National Archives at Kew; and from the official military records of the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia.

Many of our sources, such as battalion war diaries, record the sweep of battle not the actions of individual men. In these cases we have surmised, at the time of his death, what a man might have been doing rather than what he is known to have been doing. Where we have done this we have tried to make it clear in the text.

An invaluable source for information about our County Regiment’s men has been “The History of the Norfolk Regiment, August 1914 – December 1918” by F Lorraine Petre OBE. It covers in great detail the battles in which the men in our County regiment were killed or wounded.

Finally, we cannot over-emphasise the value of the World Wide Web without which we could not have achieved this record. Key helpers via this medium have been friends such as Dan Breen and Barb Hogan in Canada, Phyllis Bar-nes in Western Australia, Jan Sim in Adelaide, Moominpappa06 on Flickr.com and innumerable other contacts, websites and Internet discussion groups.

 

ROLL OF HONOUR: IN ALPhABETICAL ORDER 

ALEXANDER, Walter Ernest 5 July 1916 Page 21
ANNIS, Arthur William 24 July 1916 26
BARNES, Eric Benjamin(1) 21 July 1940 24
BARNES, Maurice Charles(1) 9 September 1940 38
BEAUMONT, Robert George 4 October 1917 46
BLIGH, Alfred(1) 19 November 1916 52
BOGGIS MM, Alfred John 8 October 1918 47
BRACEY, Walter Wilfred 2 September 1914 37
CAIN, Leonard Walter George 8 August 1944 33
CARR, Leonard Edward(5) 7 June 1917 20
CUBITT, Alfred Alec Arnold(1) 26 September 1915 43
DAVEY, Edward William(1) 26 December 1915 56
ETHERIDGE, Horace Charles(3) 22 April 1917 15
EVERETT, Leonard George(6) 3 April 1917 11
GIDNEY, Robert Kitchener(1) 18 November 1941 51
GILLINGWATER, Victor George 17 February 1917 8
GREENACRE, Charles William 22 April 1916 14
GREENACRE, Henry George Valentine 27 March 1916 10
HALE, Harry Charles(4) 2 June 1944 18
HALLETT, Stephen Cyril Garnier(4) 21 November 1944 53
HARBER, Freeman(1) 14 September 1914 39
HARVEY, Albert Edward(1) 13 August 1915 35
HOOD, Henry John(1) 26 July 1944 27
HUNT, Ernest James(1) 27 July 1916 28
KEELER, Sidney George 27 July 1918 30
KEDGE, Sidney Richard 8 July 1916 22
KING, Alfred George(5) 28 November 1915 54
LEEDER, Ernest Albert 16 April 1917 13
LINCOLN, Clifford(5) 31 July 1944 31
LOVEWELL, Jack Edmond 16 August 1943 36
MACE, Albert George(3) 19 July 1915 23
MARKS, Sidney Herbert 8 October 1917 48
MAYES, Archie Russel 19 February 1941 9
MAYES, Harry Samuel 1 October 1915 44
MAYES, Jack Arthur 23 October 1941 50
MITCHELL, Reginald James(2) 2 October 1917 45
PARKER, Albert William 9 February 1917 7
PODD, Herbert Charles George 28 June 1942 20
PRESTON DCM, John Henry(1) 9 January 1920 6
ROPE, Alfred Hubert 5 May 1917 16
ROPE, Leonard Godfrey 7 April 1916 12
STARMAN, Albert Edward Hamilton(1) 21 September 1944 42
STARMAN MM, William Edward(1) 16 September 1918 41
STONE, Aubrey Samuel 15 September 1916 40
STONE, Thomas(6) 9 May 1915 17
THROWER, Herbert Charles(1) 27 July 1916 29
THROWER, Walter Albert(1) 8 August 1916 32
TOLVER, William Leonard(1) 23 July 1944 25
WALL, Clement Sidney 11 August 1917 34
WEDDUP, Charles Daniel 17 October 1915 49
WRIGHT, James Robert 17 December 1918 55
(1) Added for re-dedication (25 May 2007) ( 2) Added for Remembrance Day 2007
(3) Added for Remembrance Day 2008 (4) Added for Remembrance Day 2009
(5) Added for Remembrance Day 2011 (6) Not yet on Memorial

If your town or village has undertaken similar research, or has a locally produced book/booklet about WW1 connections, please do let us know – we’d love to feature it on the the blog.

Surveying War Memorials

About a month ago I was lucky enough to go on a course run by Civic Voices all about surveying the country’s war memorials.

The course was run on behalf of the War Memorials Trust and there are two ideas behind the campaign:

  • to get complete record of all of the nation’s war memorials doesn’t currently exist and this is a drive to get them all noted down while there is interest in commemoration.
  • to survey all the memorials, many were designed and built just after WW1 and so are now about a hundred years old and could be in need of repair or even be in danger of falling down.

The course was really interesting, our tutor Anna took us through the wheres/whys/hows and then we got the chance to put what we’d learned into practice and went out to complete a survey on a Norwich memorial.img_4671

After a chilly hour outside we came back and discussed our findings and then looked at how to record what we’d noted on the website.

There are still some courses around the country that you can attend to learn about this project in person but to help in this project you don’t need to actually go to one of these – all the details are explained in on line in their toolkit. The video is most helpful – I’ve rewatched it ready to go out and do my first survey!