Images from the archives – the Recreation Ground at King’s Lynn being used as a military camp

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This image forms part of King’s Lynn Library’s Local Studies collections. It was added to the Lynn and Norfolk Photographic Survey Record in the early 20th century and was taken by H.C. Allinson. This is just one of several hundred newly published original photographs, posters and notices connected with the First World War in Norfolk, which can be viewed at http://www.picture.norfolk.gov.uk.
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War Diary February 1918

War Norfolk
British Voting Reforms

The Representation of the People Act receives Royal Assent, thus extending the right to vote to almost all British men as well as women aged over 30.

 

Local Celebrity Killed

It was reported that professional dancer, Mr Vernon Castle died in a flying accident on the 15 Feb 1918.

Rationing

Food rationing begins in London and the south of Britain.

Donation to Norwich Library

The Norwich Library Committee receives a map and a wax model of part of the Somme battlefields from Lieut.-Col. W. A. J. O’Mearea, C.M.G., whom during his stay in Norwich spent his leisure time making the model.

Edward Barber Leeder – Submarine K-4

Edward Barber Leeder was born in 1897, the son of Mary Leeder.  He was baptised on the 4th April 1897 in Swanton Novers parish church (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: From the Baptisms Register, Swanton Novers, 1897

 

Edward enlisted on 1st September 1914 at Newcastle upon Tyne with the Border Regiment, and gave his age as 18 years 6 months.[1]  He gave his occupation as ‘miner’, and place of residence as Blyth on his enlistment papers.  However, as he was born in 1897, he was only 17 years (and 6 months) old on enlistment.  He did not remain with the Border Regiment for very long, as he was discharged on the 13th November 1914 under the King’s Regulations K.R. 392 (iii) (c) ‘not likely to become an efficient soldier’.  Edward then joined the Royal Navy on the 5th February 1915, giving his date of birth as 28th February 1896 (making him 18, when he was still only actually 17), so it appears that Edward was in fact born on the 28th February 1897 (he presumably just added a year to his age in order enlist in the army and then the navy).  His Seaman’s Service Record notes that he was 5’ 3” tall, with a chest measurement of 35½”, and that he had brown hair, blue eyes and a ‘fresh’ complexion, and his occupation is given as ‘miner’.

Edward served on five vessels between February 1915 and August 1917, and was promoted from Ordinary Seaman to Able Seaman towards the end of 1915.  On the 24th August 1917, he joined the submarine K-4, (see Figures 2 and 3) a British K class Submarine, which were around 339ft/103m long, driven by oil-fired steam engines, and notoriously difficult to manoeuvre.  K-4 was built by Vickers (Barrow-in-Furness), and commissioned on the 1st January 1917.

Figure 2: K-4 pictured in harbour.

Figure 3: November 1917, Walney island. K-4 following a collision with K-1

On the 31st January 1918 (in what was later known as the Battle of the Isle of May), British warships steamed north from Rosyth to join their fleet at Scapa Flow, accompanied by a flotilla of nine submarines, as part of Exercise EC1.  The vessels were organised in four flotillas, with a distance of 5 nautical miles between each group, led by the flagship HMS Courageous:

  • HMS Ithuriel, followed by the submarines K-11, K-17, K-14, K-12 and K-22
  • HMS Australia, HMS New Zealand, HMS Indomitable, HMS Inflexible (plus destroyers)
  • HMS Fearless, followed by submarines K-4, K-3, K-6 and K-7
  • HMS Barham, HMS Warspite, HMS Valiant (plus destroyers).

Initial visibility had been good, but nearer to the Isle of May visibility was hampered by a sea mist and the vessels had been ordered to maintain radio silence and extinguish navigation lights as they made their way to join the fleet.  There then followed a series of unfortunate collisions.[2]

Two submarines in the first flotilla (K-11 and K-17) found themselves bearing down on two small vessels (possibly minesweepers) and changed course; a third submarine, K-14, veered to avoid colliding with the two small vessels but started to circle out of control as her helm jammed; at approximately 1914 hours she was then rammed by K-22, bringing up the rear of the first flotilla.  At around 1943 hours, the cruiser from the second flotilla, HMS Inflexible, collided with K-22.  At around 1940 hours, the remaining vessels in the first flotilla – HMS Ithuriel, K-11, K-17 and K-12 – had turned back towards the site of the collision between K-14 and K-22.  Unfortunately they only added to the unfolding debacle, as they were sailing into the path of the third flotilla led by HMS Fearless.  At around 2032 hours, HMS Fearless, unable to avoid a vessel crossing in front of her, collided with K-17K-17’s crew abandoned ship; the submarine was lost and she sank in around eight minutes.   Meanwhile K-4 had been brought to a stop in response to Fearless’ warning sirens.  K-6, part of the third flotilla, mistaking the lights of K-4 for K-3 (which she had been assiduously following), found themselves bearing down on the stationary K-4 instead.  At 2036 hours, K-6 struck K-4, slicing her almost in half, and as K-6 detached herself from the stricken submarine K-4 sank almost immediately, with the loss of all the crew (59 men – 6 officers and 53 ratings).  Of the crew of K-17, only nine men survived – the escaping crew were inadvertently mown down in the ensuing chaos by the destroyers escorting the fourth flotilla.

The K class of submarines earned the nickname ‘Kalamity’; the men who served on them came to be known as the ‘suicide club’.  Of the eighteen that were built, none were lost in action, but six were sunk in accidental collisions.[3]  The crew of submarines K-4 and K-17 are commemorated by a plaque in Anstruther Harbour, erected in their memory during the submarine centenary year 2001 and unveiled on the 31st January 2002.  It reads:

‘To commemorate those members of the ships’ companies of His Majesty’s submarines K4 and K17 who gave their lives in the service of their country off the Isle of May on 31st January 1918”

The wrecks of K-4 and K-17 were surveyed in 2011, to ensure that they could be left undamaged should a proposed wind farm be constructed in the area.  They lie about 100 metres apart and 50 metres down on the sea bed.[4]

Edward records his mother on both his Army and Navy service records as Mary Graveling, of Duckers Beck, East Dereham.[5]  Mary Wilhelmina Leeder was born in 1878 and baptised on the 28th December 1879 (along with her sisters Lucy Ann and Eliza Lydia) in Swanton Novers parish church, the daughter of William and Eliza Leeder.[6]  Mary married Alfred Graveling in 1899,[7] and by the time of the 1911 census for Wood Norton they had eight children (4 boys and 4 girls).  Alfred died in 1930 aged 53; Mary died in 1946, with her age recorded as 66.[8]

It is not clear whether Edward lived with his mother after her marriage to Alfred Graveling.  In the 1901 census for Swanton Novers, Mary and Alfred Graveling are living in The Street, Swanton Novers, with their two small children, Lucy (aged 2), and William (9 months), together with a lodger (a young man of 20, George Porter from Ely, a blacksmith’s striker so perhaps a worker on the nearby railway works at Melton Constable) – but not Edward.[9]  Edward (aged 4) is recorded in the 1901 census with his grandparents, William and Eliza Leeder, in Giles Road, Swanton Novers.[10]

In the 1911 census for Swanton Novers, Edward (aged 14) is recorded in the household of his aunt, Elizabeth Louisa Bullen, rather than with his mother in Wood Norton.   Elizabeth Louisa Leeder was Mary’s older sister, who married William James Bullen in 1889.  The census records Edward’s name as Edward Bullen Leeder, and he is a ‘mother’s helper (at present)’.[11]  Sometime between 1911 and 1914 Edward moved from Norfolk to Blyth, Northumberland to take up the occupation of miner.  It is worth noting that Edward was not the only serviceman with Wood Norton connections to have enlisted in the northeast – Thomas Charles Colman (Nicholas Robert Colman’s brother) was living in Blyth (Rotherham) when he enlisted in Newcastle upon Tyne in May 1916.  Exactly why men from rural Norfolk moved so far away, presumably for work, is unclear and would bear further investigation.

Edward Barber Leeder is commemorated on a memorial in St Margaret Pattens, Eastcheap, London, which contains the names of all the 104 men who died in the Battle of the Isle of May incident.[12]   It is dedicated by the widow of the captain of the K-4:

To the Proud and Undying Remembrance of my Husband Commdr David De Beauvoir Stocks, R.N. D.S.O. Legion of Honour, who was drowned January 31st 1918, serving his King & Country, and in Memory of all those who died with him.”

The official papers and the subsequent Court of Inquiry into the incident, held in early February 1918, were not released until 1994, by which time all the survivors had died.  Despite the secrecy surrounding the incident, the King (George V) had been fully briefed, and in a letter he wrote to Admiral David Beatty on 12th February 1918 he expressed his distress at the ‘deplorable accident which has just occurred to the K boats in which two were sunk and four others damaged beside the loss of valuable trained officers & men’.  His is the only expression of regret at the loss of life that is recorded.[13]

[1] British Army WW1 Service Records 1914-1920 (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[2] For a full account see N.S. Nash, K Boat Catastrophe: Eight Ships and Five Collisions – The full story of the ‘Battle of the Isle of May’ (Pen & Sword Maritime; 2009), especially Chapter Three (pp.52-71).

[3] The Scottish War Memorials Project (http://warmemscot.s4.bizhat.com/warmemscot-ftopic4847.html); The Guardian, 29 August 2011, Simon Bates Divers survey Scottish graveyard of first world war submarine disaster (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/aug/29/divers-war-submarine-disaster); the Royal Navy Submarine Museum, Submarine losses 1904 to the present day (http://www.submarine-museum.co.uk/what-we-have/memorial-chapel/submarine-losses?start=8); Wikipedia, Battle of May Island  (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_May_Island); Wikipedia, British K class submarine (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_K-class_submarine)

[4] There is an excellent video taken in June 20017 of a dive to the wreck on YouTube at  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7khYjJf4aA

[5] British Army WW1 Service Records 1914-1920 (www.ancestry.co.uk); UK, Royal Navy and Royal Marine War Graves Roll, 1914-1919 (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[6] FreeBMD Quarter to March 1876, Walsingham Vol.4b, p.281 (www.freebmd.org.uk); Baptism Register, Swanton Novers, 1879 (www.familysearch.org)

[7] FreeBMD Quarter to September 1899, Walsingham Vol. 4b, p. 582 (www.freebmd.org.uk)

[8] FreeBMD Quarter to September 1930, Erpingham Vol.4b, p.74 (www.freebmd.org); FreeBMD Quarter to March 1946, North Walsham Vol.4b, p.83( http://www.freebmd.org)

[9] 1911 Census, Wood Norton (Schedule 163) (www.ancestry.co.uk); 1901 Census, Swanton Novers (Page 11) (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[10] 1901 Census, Swanton Novers (Page 7) (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[11] 1911 Census, Swanton Novers (Schedule 33) (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[12] War Memorials Online (www.warmemorialsonline.org.uk/memorial/145094  and www.warmemorialsonline.org.uk/memorial/251194)

[13] N.S. Nash, K Boat Catastrophe: Eight Ships and Five Collisions – The full story of the ‘Battle of the Isle of May’; pp.87-88; p107 (Pen & Sword Maritime; 2009).

Rationing in the First World War

From the records held at the Norfolk Record Office.

With attacks on merchant shipping, agricultural labourers leaving the land to fight on the Front and horses being requisitioned for the war, there had been growing concerns about food shortages as the war progressed.  Articles abounded on wartime economies and in May 1917 the Bread Pledge was introduced encouraging people to eat less grain. However, as food shortages continued to be an ever growing concern, compulsory rationing was introduced in January 1918.  At first only sugar was rationed but, in April, it was followed by the rationing of meat, flour, butter, margarine and milk.

Before rationing, in time-honoured fashion, women in the home had been called upon to make economies.  The Carrow Works magazines, held at the Norfolk Record Office, give a typical picture of the situation.  In July 1916 the magazine announced:

Three rules for housewives.  Buy Economically.  Prepare Carefully.  Avoid all Waste.

The earlier edition in January 1916 quoted the Right Honourable Arthur Henderson of the Board of Education:

Economy in food at the present time is absolutely necessary.  It is part of the patriotic duty of every British citizen, rich and poor alike”. 

The following year an economy exhibition was held at the Castle Museum.  The Carrow Works magazine for April 1917 reported:

“. . . . cakes without eggs” were on view, and various preparations of nuts, cheese and lentils.  It has to be remembered that dishes of this kind will probably become necessities during the present year.

‘Dig for Victory’ may have been a slogan from the Second World War but the message was the same for the First World War.  The Carrow Works magazine for July 1917 stated:

Let us all who have any available ground cultivate it . . even window-boxes may be set with cress .  . and many an otherwise waste spot may be made to produce some form of vegetable life.

Photo 1 Zigomala cropped

Potatoes were even grown outside Buckingham Palace. NRO, MC 2738/14 

 

By December 1917, the situation was grave.

Photo 2 Aylsham DC Letter cropped

Letter issued by Aylsham District Council. NRO, MS 21630/114

But, despite the best efforts of the majority, sugar rationing was introduced the following January.  The Ministry of Food issued a Meat Rationing Order in March 1918 in preparation for meat rationing the following month (NRO, BR 254/65).  The Order issued guidance to butchers and others such as caterers on how to obtain meat supplies under the Meat Rationing Scheme.  The scheme applied to those living in England and Wales and outside London.  From April 7th 1918 meat could only be sold to those who had registered with butchers as customers.  Registration was carried out in March and butchers had to send a list of those who had registered with them to the Food Control Committee.  If the Committee considered the butcher had too many registered then they had the power to transfer some of the customers to another butcher.

The guidance recommended that butchers in a local area should group together to form Butchers’ Committees which would act as trade associations.  One person on the committee should be responsible for buying livestock and another for dead stock.  A levy should be paid for each butcher joining the committee and this money would provide a working fund and pay for any expenses incurred by the butchers.  It was recommended that the committees drew up rules limiting the financial responsibilities of each member to avoid any irregularities.

Photo 3 Meat Rationing Order cropped

Part of the guidance issued to butchers in 1918. NRO, BR 254/65

The meat rationing scheme started on April 7th from which time butchers needed a permit to buy meat.  If there was insufficient meat to provide for those registered with the butcher then this would be reported to the Deputy Meat Agent who would try to procure supplies. Equally the agent was to be informed if there were surpluses so that the stock could be redistributed where there was a need.

Photo 4 Children's Meat Coupons cropped

Children had their own coupons.  These shown here were handed in to butchers D W Bellamy & Sons of 136 King St, Gt Yarmouth. NRO, Y/D 74/58

 

Margarine was also rationed from April 1918.  The Carrow Works magazine for that month wrote:

Any Margarine?  Well four ounces a week – when you can get it.  But please don’t call it Mar-jer-ine.  Ask for Mar-gar-ine, and if you detect a smile on the face of the shopkeeper, tell him that the word “Margarine” comes from the Latin word ‘Margarita’, signifying a pearl; and that the ‘g’ is hard.

A letter written by Frank Palmer to his father about his father’s imminent visit to Norwich expresses concern about the availability of food supplies that his father had requested.  (NRO, MC 2440/1/16, 973×4).  From his address at 9 Market Place, Norwich Frank wrote:

Unfortunately it does not lay in my power to obtain only such quantities of Butter, Tea & Sgr to which we are entitled to.  Here we are only allowed 1oz of Butter and 5 ounces of Margarine each per week.   2 ounces of Tea & 1/2lb Sugar per week also.

 

Photo 5 Ration allowances cropped

Ration allowances for adults. NRO, MS 21630/114

 

 

Hardships continued throughout the war but these were ameliorated by several initiatives.  The work of the Woman’s War Agricultural Committee recruited women to work on the land.  This was later formalised into the Women’s Land Army in January 1917.  The introduction of mechanization with tractors made up for the loss of horses and men,  The employment of German prisoners of war, while not without its problems, also helped fill the gap in labour shortages.  Such initiatives, along with the determined efforts of men, women and children to do their bit, ensured that Britain may have been hungry but it did not starve.

NRO Blogger – Daryl Long

 

 

 

 

Images from the archives – the children, women and men of St. Nicholas Works at Thetford

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Shell casings and other products can be seen at the front of the group. This image taken by Boughton’s studios comes from the Percy Trett Collection, at the Time and Tide Museum

Charles Burrell & Sons of Thetford were makers of steam traction engines, agricultural machinery, steam trucks and steam tram engines, but during the First World War they produced munitions and gun mountings for the Admiralty. This is just one of several hundred newly published original photographs, posters and notices connected with the First World War in Norfolk and available on http://www.picture.norfolk.gov.uk.

Alfred Wright – Wood Norton

Alfred Wright was born in 1895 and baptised on the 8th December 1895, in Wood Norton parish church, the son of William and Jane Wright (see Figure 1).[1]

Figure 1: From the Baptisms Register, Wood Norton, 1895

The British Army WW1 Service Records 1914-1920 survive for Alfred, who gave his age on enlistment as 20 years 2 months, height 5’ 3¼”, chest 35½”, weight 9st 1lb, and his occupation as a ‘horseman’.  Alfred enlisted in Norwich on the 6th November 1915, in the 3/1st Norfolk Yeomanry.  He was posted overseas and left Davenport on the 15th September 1916, arriving in Salonica on the 30th September 1916.   He was transferred from the Norfolk Yeomanry to the 179th Company,  Machine Gun Corps on the 24th January 1917.  On 20th June 1917 he left Salonica, arriving in Alexandria a few days later on the 23rd June 1917.

On the 10th December 1917 the Casualty Form – Active Service[2] records that Alfred had been wounded in action on the 8th December 1917 (a gunshot wound to the abdomen), and had died from his wounds (Alfred had been involved in the fighting to capture Jerusalem).  He was 22 years old.  The Casualty Form notes that he was buried on the 12th December 1917, near the Russian Monastery at Ain Karim (in south-west Jerusalem) (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: Casualty Form – Active Service, for Alfred Wright

The Record of Soldier’s Effects[3] lists two amounts paid in May 1918 to Alfred’s father William, as sole legatee – £10 2s 11d and £3 16s 4d.  The Record of Soldier’s Effects also notes that Alfred died of wounds while in the care of the 2/4th London Field Ambulance, Palestine.  A War Gratuity of £9 was paid to William in November 1919.

At the outbreak of war Palestine was part of the Turkish Empire, but Allied forces did not enter Palestine until December 1916; the advance to Jerusalem took a further year.  By the 21st November 1917, the Egyptian Expeditionary Force had gained a line about five kilometres west of Jerusalem, although the city was spared direct bombardment and attack.   Very severe fighting followed, lasting until the evening of the 8th December, when the city’s prepared defences were captured.  Turkish forces left Jerusalem throughout that night and in the morning of the 9th December 1917 the Turkish forces letter of surrender was handed to the Allies, and Jerusalem was occupied.  The Jerusalem War Cemetery was begun after the occupation of the city, with 270 burials, but was later enlarged to take graves from the battlefields and smaller cemeteries in the neighbourhood.[4]

Alfred’s military headstone (No. 2075) bears the inscription chosen by his parents, Death Divides, But Memory Clings.[5]  Alfred was awarded the British War Medal and the Victory Medal.[6]

Further research into Alfred’s family reveals that his father, William Wright was baptised on the 22nd May 1864, in Wood Norton parish church, the son of Richard and Alice Wright.[7]  William married Jane Buck in December 1891 in Wood Norton parish church.[8]  In the 1911 census for Swanton Novers, William is recorded as aged 47 and a bricklayer working on the Estate; he died in 1954, aged 90, and is buried in Wood Norton.  Jane was baptised on the 30th July 1865 in Stibbard parish church, the daughter of Robert and Elizabeth Buck.[9]  She died in 1950, aged 84, and is buried in Wood Norton.

The 1911 census reveals that the family were living in Swanton Novers, near The Bell.  They had eight children (three boys and five girls) who were all living at home when the census was taken:

Alice Baptised: 30th October 1892, Wood Norton.[10]

In the 1911 census, Alice is aged 18 and a school teacher.

Died: 1919 (Watford), aged 26.  Alice is buried in Wood Norton.

Edward Born: 15th July 1894, Wood Norton, and baptised 14th October 1894, Stibbard.[11]

In the 1911 census, Edward is aged 16, and a bricklayer’s labourer.

Died: 1979 (Wood Norton), aged 85.

Alfred Born: 1895, Wood Norton

In the 1911 census, Alfred is aged 15, and a general labourer.

Died: 8th December 1917, aged 22.  Palestine.

Edith Baptised: 11th July 1897, Wood Norton.[12]

In the 1911 census, Edith is aged 14 and at school.

Margaret Baptised: 21st August 1898, Wood Norton.[13]

In the 1911 census, Margaret is aged 12 and at school.

Elsie Baptised: 3rd June 1900, Wood Norton.[14]

In the 1911 census, Elsie is aged 11 and at school.

Mary Born: 1902, Wood Norton.[15]

In the 1911 census, Mary is aged 9.

William Born: 1904, Swanton Novers.[16]

In the 1911 census, William is aged 7.

Died: 1989 (Swanton Novers), aged 85.

The Wood Norton War Memorial includes Alfred’s older brother, Edward, on the list of men who served in WW1, and survived.

A memorial to Alfred is included on the headstone for his elder sister Alice, who died on the 25th February 1919, aged 26 and is buried in Wood Norton churchyard.  The inscription to Alfred reads: Also Alfred, their second son, killed in action on Dec. 8th 1917, buried at Enab in Palestine, aged 22 years.

Beneath the dedication to Alfred is another inscription: Also [in memory of] Arthur Robert Buck, uncle of the above, killed in action in France, May 25th 1918, aged 40 years.  Arthur was Jane Wright’s younger brother. These inscriptions are followed by the words from Alfred’s military headstone, Death Divides but Memory Clings.

Sources

[1] FreeBMD, Quarter to December 1895, Aylsham Vol 4b, p77 (www.freebmd.org.uk); Baptism Register, Wood Norton, 1895 (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[2] British Army WW1 Service Records 1914-1920 (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[3] Record of Soldier’s Effects (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[4] CWGC information for the Jerusalem War Cemetery (www.cwgc.org)

[5] CWGC graves headstone schedule and inscription schedule (www.cmgc.org)

[6] Medal Roll Index Cards (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[7] Baptism Register, Wood Norton, 1864 (www.ancestry.co.uk)

[8] FreeBMD Quarter to December 1891, Aylsham Vol.4b, p.269 (www.freebmd.org.uk)

[9] Baptism Register, Stibbard, 1865 (www.ancestry.co.uk); FreeBMD Quarter to September 1865, Walsingham Vol.4b, p.267 (freebmd.org.uk)

[10] Baptism Register, Wood Norton, 1892 (www.ancestry.co.uk); Free BMD, Quarter to December 1892, Aylsham Vol.4b, p.70 (www.freebmd.org.uk)

[11] Baptism Register, Stibbard, 1894 (www.ancestry.co.uk); FreeBMD, Quarter to September 1894, Aylsham Vol.4b, p79 (www.freebmd.org.uk)

[12] Baptism Register, Wood Norton, 1897 (www.ancestry.co.uk); FreeBMD Quarter to June 1897, Aylsham Vol.4b, p.80 (www.freebmd.org.uk)

[13] Baptism Register, Wood Norton, 1898 (www.ancestry.co.uk); FreeBMD Quarter to September 1898, Aylsham Vol.4b, p.78 (www.freebmb.org.uk)

[14] Baptism Register, Wood Norton, 1900 (www.ancestry.co.uk); FreeBMD Quarter to March 1900, Aylsham Vol.4b, p.88 (www.freebmd.org.uk)

[15] FreeBMD Quarter to March 1902, Aylsham Vol.44b, p.82 (www.freebmd.org.uk)

[16] FreeBMD Quarter to June 1904, Walsingham Vol.4b, p.257 (www.freebmd.org.uk)

Images from the archives – German prisoners working on the Waveney

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German prisoners of war working on channel cutting on the River Waveney – from Museum of Norwich at The Bridewell

This comes from a collection related to Hobrough & Son’s firm of river contractors and engineers, established by James Hobrough in 1854. The firm’s headquarters was an inn at Bishop’s Bridge for many years and later they also built a dockyard at Thorpe St Andrew. James Samuel Hobrough (born 1864) took up photography in 1893 and documented much of the firms work until the 1920s. This large collection of images forms part of the Bridewell Museum’s holdings and many can be viewed at http://www.picture.norfolk.gov.uk  (search term: Hobrough)