War Diary March 1918

War Norfolk
First 1918 Battle of Somme

 The Germans launch a strong offensive in France (Operation Michael) aimed at splitting the British and French lines. The British in particular suffer heavy casualties and begin a far reaching withdrawal. Fighting continues to 5 April.

 

Rationing Plan for Norwich Drawn Up

The Norwich Food Control Committee have adopted a scheme of rationing with regard to meat, butter and margarine and will be put into force on April 7th. It will then become impossible to obtain these goods for consumption without an individual card or an official order form in the case of caters and institutions.

Paris Shelled

Following their advance through the former Allied lines, the Germans use a long range railway gun to shell Paris. This continues to 15 August.

New Children’s Home for Orphans

With places especially reserved for children orphaned by the war, 40 boys are now in residence at Hook’s Hill House.

‘Shortacre’ will be the adjoining house for girls and will shortly be opened. Gifts of clothes, old or new are welcome.

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War Diary February 1918

War Norfolk
British Voting Reforms

The Representation of the People Act receives Royal Assent, thus extending the right to vote to almost all British men as well as women aged over 30.

 

Local Celebrity Killed

It was reported that professional dancer, Mr Vernon Castle died in a flying accident on the 15 Feb 1918.

Rationing

Food rationing begins in London and the south of Britain.

Donation to Norwich Library

The Norwich Library Committee receives a map and a wax model of part of the Somme battlefields from Lieut.-Col. W. A. J. O’Mearea, C.M.G., whom during his stay in Norwich spent his leisure time making the model.

War Diary January 1918

War Norfolk
Peace Outline Announced

American President Woodrow Wilson announces ’14 Points’ that he believes could form the basis for a peace agreement.

 

Local Boy Feted

Ex-Norwich Grammar School student, Captain Philip Fletcher Fullard, D. S. O., M.C., is celebrated for his achievements in bringing down 42 enemy machines and 3 balloons in the last six months of flying.

  Christmas Fundraiser

A sum of 16s raised through Christmas Dinner donations in Blicking was given to the fund for blinded soldiers’ children.

War Diary December 1917

War Norfolk
Jerusalem Taken

One month after the Balfour declaration supporting a Jewish homeland within Palestine, Jerusalem is taken by the British ending 673 years of Turkish rule.

 

Record War Saving Totals

The City of Norwich School War Savings Association, which was founded in July 1916, has now received subscriptions of over £1000 exclusive of withdrawals.

Bolsheviks Sue for Peace

The Bolshevik government in Russia signs an armistice with the Germans, suspending hostilities on the Eastern Front

A Reminder to Farmers

The Norfolk War Agricultural Committee reminds farmers that it is essential to release lads of 18 and 19 years of age, unless very exceptional circumstances exist. Skilled men previously employed on farm work are being made available and every effort will be made to readjust labour requirements without damage to food production.

War Diary November 1917

War Norfolk
Jerusalem Taken

One month after the Balfour declaration supporting a Jewish homeland within Palestine, Jerusalem is taken by the British ending 673 years of Turkish rule.

 

Record War Saving Totals

The City of Norwich School War Savings Association, which was founded in July 1916, has now received subscriptions of over £1000 exclusive of withdrawals.

Bolsheviks Sue for Peace

The Bolshevik government in Russia signs an armistice with the Germans, suspending hostilities on the Eastern Front

A Reminder to Farmers

The Norfolk War Agricultural Committee reminds farmers that it is essential to release lads of 18 and 19 years of age, unless very exceptional circumstances exist. Skilled men previously employed on farm work are being made available and every effort will be made to readjust labour requirements without damage to food production.

Training in the First World War as recalled by Malcolm Castle

Training in the First World War as recalled by Malcolm Castle

Most World War I history recalls the terrible scenes of battle and countless British men adapting to life in the trenches. However an army, particularly one consisting of mostly volunteers, cannot function on the battlefield without proper training and one recruit, Malcolm Castle, a Norwich man, recalled the kind of routine that took place on a typical First World War training ground.

On the 4th of August Britain declared war on Germany. Seeing as the island nation was taking on a European superpower with a much more experienced land army, the British Army needed all the manpower it could get to fight. Many officers were sent out to various settlements across the United Kingdom to recruit as many men as possible. One such recruit was office worker, Malcolm Castle who approached the Artillery Drill Hall a day after the war began to apply for a commission in the East Anglian Field Artillery. After consulting Major Percy Wiltshire, the officer gave Castle a note for Lieutenant Colonel Le Mottee of Norwich. After obtaining his father’s permission he eventually found the Colonel who accepted him subject to the approval of The War Office. He was then medically examined by Dr R. J. Mills who had just returned from Germany. Britain not only required an army with much man power but it also needed a healthy one, therefore rigorous medical examinations were conducted for all new recruits. This was especially important to retain military strength, particularly after the Boer War when it was discovered that many of the volunteer recruits were in a poor physical condition, a lot of them being turned down as a result.

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Diary of Malcolm Castle, March – Dec 1914, (MC 657/1, 790X6)

At the end of the day after posting an application for a commission, Castle joined the 1st Norfolk Battery. The following morning, he saw himself at 6am on duty at the Nelson School which was being used as temporary barracks. After a quick breakfast back home he was on duty all morning and afternoon. This routine became more constant for Castle but he adapted quickly to army life, often appearing in the Drill Hall at the crack of dawn. He soon went on to Doddinghurst where he got the chance to ride some of the chargers two ‘good’ mares before finding the battery headquarters. He described it as ‘a most awful place’, his friends Miles and Martin were forced to sleep on the floor, given the fact that there were only two beds which were both infested with fleas. Early in the morning, Castle and his groom, Gunner Rice rode to Cow’s Farm where another friend, Ruddoch helped him build a shack to sleep in. When he returned to Norwich Castle he was quartered at the Cavalry Barracks, a member of the 12th Lancers lending him a bed.

After leaving the cavalry barracks Castle’s battery was stationed by orders of Colonel J.W. Currie at Spixworth Park. Castle was an Orderly Officer as he did drills. Unfortunately a thunderstorm swept over and as a result five men were struck by lightning ‘one very badly’. Parades became a common occurrence during Castle’s new life, occupying much of his diary entries. One evening the men dug gunpits before they were occupied the following morning as part of a practice alarm. Meanwhile as a sign that the women of Britain were equally patriotic as the men, keen to see their loved ones fight for their nation and carry out their duty, Castle’s love, Gladys Bellamy, sent him a prayer book adorned with a Union Jack that she worked onto it. As in common with many young people at the time, Castle kept regular correspondence with his parents throughout his time with the military.

Castle’s battery volunteered for foreign service but since he had not taken a gunnery course, the Colonel could not take him. He was posted to the 2nd Norfolk Battery commanded by Captain C.E. Hodges and where he spent most of his time around the billets at Horsford Manor, or taking part in drills and parades. In one march he acted as Captain. The men were soon moved to Felthorpe where Castle attended services at the local Church alongside his comrades. In the early days of October the Colonel turned up and using the Battery Staff as a troop of Cavalry, charged at the guns. Castle also mentions attending a Court Martial at St. Faith’s on the same day but he does not go into detail. On the 16th of October tragedy struck when one of the commanders, Kempson, received a message that his brother had gone down in H.U.S. ‘Hawke’. Such tragedies could be seen as early warning signs of what the Great War would become, a bloodbath. As the war began to rear its ugly head, it drew Castle and his fellow officers closer. He frequently dined, walked, rode or simply talked to them and it is likely that comrades were beginning to become almost like a second family to him.

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Diary of Malcolm Castle, March – Dec 1914, (MC 657/1, 790X6)

On November 3 German ships were spotted in the port of Yarmouth, and an order was received for the battalion to stand by, but soon afterwards it was cancelled. The armoured cruiser responsible was sunk but while Yarmouth survived the German sea raid with little casualties, it would be the first British settlement to face a zeppelin attack. Since the military at first knew little about what to do with the zeppelin problem, the sight of them must have terrified Norfolk citizens. Soon afterwards the battalion seemed to be inspected more regularly, perhaps due to the incident. Castle meanwhile was highly responsible for the training of the horses, on November 24 he mentions taking the recruits riding and even had some of them jumping. Towards the end of his diary Castle frequently talks about housing and exercising the steeds of the battalion. On the 27th he took part in a Brigade Night March where the men dug. At dawn a dozen rounds of blank was fired. After acting as Captain again, exhausted, Castle ended up sleeping for the rest of the day. Following a round of inspections on December 5th, the battalion had a football match against the 1st Battery, winning 2-1. While this is a relatively minor detail, football would soon become a great symbol of the war during the Christmas armistice when British and German troops briefly put aside their differences and upon No Man’s Land, played a friendly football game.

Malcom Castle provides useful first-hand information concerning training during the Great War, giving a good and accurate picture of how local military routines were conducted in Norfolk and the rest of Britain. As he and his comrades trained, men from the front were arriving back in Norwich wounded, and the amount would only increase as the war carried on. His diary is kept in the Norfolk Record Office (MC 657/1, 790X6) and provides a reminder of British atmosphere during this time of conflict.

By Rebecca Hanley, NRO Research Blogger

War Diary October 1917

War Norfolk
Battle of Caporetto

Austro-Hungarian and German soldiers break through the Italian lines in the Isonzo region and force a retreat of 90 miles. 300,000 Italian prisoners are taken. Fighting carries on until 10 November.

Soldiers Caught Robbing Canteen Stores

Two army drivers plead guilty at Norwich Guildhall to stealing cigarettes and chocolate worth £3. 6s. 10d. from a warehouse at 37 Surrey Street which was the property of the Soldiers and Sailors Canteen Committee.

Last Zeppelin Raid on London

The last German airship raid on London takes place on 19th October. Raids on the rest of the UK continued until August 1918.

Blackout Breached

A greengrocer from Cromer was reported, and subsequently fined 10s for failing to obscure light from her house after it was found she had been given two previous warnings.